ABT-737 Chemical Structure
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A selective inhibitor of BCL-2, in small cell lung cancer. ABT-737 induced dramatic regressions in tumors derived from some SCLC cell lines. In vitro, peripheral blood CLL cells are extremely sensitive to ABT-737 (EC50 ~7 nM).
ABT-737 is a potent small-molecule inhibitor of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-w with markedly higher affinity than previously reported compounds. ABT-737 induces apoptosis in MM cells, including those resistant to conventional therapy. Importantly, ABT-737 decreases the viability of bortezomib-, dexamethasone-(Dex) and thalidomide-refractory patient MM cells. Additionally, ABT-737 abrogates MM cell growth triggered by interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor-1. Mechanistic studies show that ABT-737-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3, followed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Combining ABT-737 with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, melphalan or dexamethasone induces additive anti-MM activity. Taken together, our study provides the rationale for clinical protocols evaluating ABT-737, alone and together with botezomib, mephalan or dexamethasone, to enhance MM cell killing, overcome drug resistance conferred by Bcl-2 and improve patient outcome in MM.
Optical purity: 100% by chiral HPLC
Chemical Purity: >99% by HPLC
Storage Conditions : Room temperature, or -20ºC for 2 year.
Bcl-2 is a better ABT-737 target than Bcl-xL or Bcl-w and only Noxa overcomes resistance mediated by Mcl-1, Bfl-1, or Bcl-B
Citation: Cell Death and Disease (2012) 3, e366; doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.109
Published online 9 August 2012
The novel anticancer drug ABT-737 is a Bcl-2 Homology 3 (BH3)-mimetic that induces apoptosis by inhibiting pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. ABT-737 binds with equal affinity to Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in vitro and is expected to overrule apoptosis resistance mediated by these Bcl-2 proteins in equal measure. We have profiled ABT-737 specificity for all six pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, in p53 wild-type or p53-mutant human T-leukemic cells. Bcl-B was untargeted, like Bfl-1 and Mcl-1, in accord with their low affinity for ABT-737 in vitro. However, Bcl-2 proved a better ABT-737 target than Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. This was reflected in differential apoptosis-sensitivity to ABT-737 alone, or combined with etoposide. ABT-737 was not equally effective in displacing BH3-only proteins or Bax from Bcl-2, as compared with Bcl-xL or Bcl-w, offering an explanation for the differential ABT-737 sensitivity of tumor cells overexpressing these proteins. Inducible expression demonstrated that BH3-only proteins Noxa, but not Bim, Puma or truncated Bid could overrule ABT-737 resistance conferred by Bcl-B, Bfl-1 or Mcl-1. These data identify Bcl-B, Bfl-1 and Mcl-1, but also Bcl-xL and Bcl-w as potential mediators of ABT-737 resistance and indicate that target proteins can be differentially sensitive to BH3-mimetics, depending on the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins they are complexed with.
ABT-737 is highly effective against molecular subgroups of multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy that is heterogeneous with respect to its causative molecular abnormalities and the treatment response of patients. The Bcl-2 protein family is critical for myeloma cell survival. ABT-737 is a cell-permeant compound that binds to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL but not to Mcl-1. Using a myeloma cell line collection (n = 25) representative of different molecular translocations, we showed that ABT-737 effectively kills a subset of cell lines (n = 6), with a median lethal dose ranging from 7 ± 0.4nM to 150 ± 7.5nM. Of interest, all sensitive cell lines harbored a t(11;14). We demonstrated that ABT-737–sensitive and ABT-737–resistant cell lines could be differentiated by the BCL2/MCL1 expression ratio. A screen of a public expression database of myeloma patients indicates that the BCL2/MCL1 ratio of t(11;14) and hyperdiploid patients was significantly higher than in all other groups (P < .001). ABT-737 first induced the disruption of Bcl-2/Bax, Bcl-2/Bik, or Bcl-2/Puma complexes, followed by the disruption of Bcl-2 heterodimers with Bak and Bim. Altogether, the identification of a subset of cell lines and primary cells effectively killed by ABT-737 alone supported the evaluation of ABT-263, an orally active counterpart to ABT-737, for the treatment of t(11;14) and hyperdiploid groups of myeloma harboring a Bcl-2high/Mcl-1low profile.
ABT-737 Induces Expression of the Death Receptor 5 and Sensitizes Human Cancer Cells to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis
Because Bcl-2 family members inhibit the ability of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce apoptosis, we investigated whether ABT-737, a small molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, enhances TRAIL killing. We demonstrate that a combination of ABT-737 and TRAIL induced significant cell death in multiple cancer types, including renal, prostate, and lung cancers, although each agent individually had little activity in these tumor cells. All of these cell lines expressed the Mcl-1 protein that is known to block the activity of ABT-737 and TRAIL but did not block the synergy between these agents. However, Bax-deficient cell lines, including DU145 and HCT116 cells and those cell lines expressing low levels of TRAIL receptor, were resistant to apoptosis induced by these agents. To understand how ABT-737 functions to markedly increase TRAIL sensitivity, the levels of specific death-inducing signaling complex components were evaluated. Treatment with ABT-737 did not change the levels of c-FLIP, FADD, and caspase-8 but up-regulated the levels of the TRAIL receptor DR5. DR5 up-regulation induced by ABT-737 treatment occurred through a transcriptional mechanism, and mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the NF-κB site found in the DR5 promoter was essential for the ability of ABT-737 to increase the levels of this mRNA. Using luciferase reporter plasmids, ABT-737 was shown to stimulate NF-κB activity. Together, these results demonstrate that the ability of ABT-737 and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Combinations of ABT-737 and TRAIL can be exploited therapeutically where antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members drive tumor cell resistance to current anticancer therapies.
1. Concurrent up-regulation of BCL-XL and BCL2A1 induces approximately 1000-fold resistance to ABT-737
in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Blood, 30 April 2009, Vol. 113, No. 18, pp. 4403-4413.
2. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737
targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized.Cancer Cell. 2006 Nov;10(5):389-99.
3. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of gemcitabine and ABT-737
in vitro and in vivo through disrupting the interaction of USP9X and Mcl-1C Zhang, TY Cai, H Zhu, L Yang, H Jiang - Molecular Cancer , 2011 - AACR
4. the molecular events necessary for synergistic tumor cell apoptosis mediated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat and the BH3 mimetic ABT-737
.AP Wiegmans, A Alsop, M Bots, LA Cluse - Cancer Research, 2011 - AACR
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